Nutrients- 12: Socio-Cultural and Economic Drivers of Plant and Animal Protein Consumption in Malaysia
The SCRiPT Study
Adam Drewnowski1,*, Elise Mognard2,3,4, Shilpi Gupta1, Mohd Noor Ismail2,3,4, Norimah A. Karim5, Laurence Tibère3,4,6, Cyrille Laporte3,4,6, Yasmine Alem2, Helda Khusun7,Judhiastuty Februhartanty7, Roselynne Anggraini7 and Jean-Pierre Poulain2,3,4,6 analysent dans cet article la transition nutritionnelle dans les pays du sud-est asiatique qui est typique de ce type de transition par l’augmentation de la place des protéines animales au détriment des végétaux. Ce papier explore les principaux drivers de cette consommation en définissant la méthodologie mise en place pour en comprendre les différences selon les pays. L’aspect culturel étant tout aussi important que l’aspect économique dans cette transition en Malaisie.
1 Center for Public Health Nutrition and Department of Epidemiology, University ofWashington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Faculty of Social Sciences & Leisure Management, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor, Malaysia; email@example.com (E.M.); Ismail.Noor@taylors.edu.my (M.N.I.); firstname.lastname@example.org (Y.A.); email@example.com (J.-P.P.)
3 International Associated Laboratory-National Center for Scientific Research (LIA-CNRS) “Food Cultures and Health”, 31058 Toulouse, France; firstname.lastname@example.org (L.T.); email@example.com (C.L.)
4 International Associated Laboratory-National Center for Scientific Research (LIA-CNRS) “Food Cultures and Health”, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
5 Centre for Community Health Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia; firstname.lastname@example.org
6 Centre d’Etude et de Recherche: Travail, Organisations, Pouvoir (CERTOP) UMR-CNRS 5044, Axe: “Santé Alimentation”, University of Toulouse 2 Jean Jaurès, 31058 Toulouse, France
7 SEAMEO Regional Centre for Food and Nutrition (RECFON), Universitas Indonesia, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 10430, Indonesia; email@example.com (H.K.); firstname.lastname@example.org (J.F.); email@example.com (R.A.)
* Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +1-206-543-8016
Received: 30 March 2020; Accepted: 21 May 2020; Published: 25 May 2020
Countries in South East Asia are undergoing a nutrition transition, which typically involves a dietary shift from plant to animal proteins. To explore the main drivers of protein consumption, the SCRiPT (Socio Cultural Research in Protein Transition) study recruited a population sample in Malaysia (N = 1604). Participants completed in-person 24 h dietary recalls and socio-demographic surveys. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using Nutritionist Pro. A novel recipe-based frequency count coded protein sources as meat (chicken, beef, pork, and mutton), fish, eggs, dairy, and plants (cereals, pulses, tubers). Dietary intakes and frequencies were examined by gender, age, income, education, ethnicity, religion, and family status, using ANOVAs and general linear models. Energy intakes were 1869 kcal/d for men and 1699 kcal/d for women. Protein intakes were 78.5 g/d for men and 72.5 g/d for women. Higher energy and protein intakes were associated with Chinese ethnicity, higher education and incomes. Frequency counts identified plant proteins in 50% of foods, followed by meat (19%), fish (12%), eggs (12%), and dairy (7%). Most frequent source of meat was chicken (16%) rather than pork or beef (1.5% each). In bivariate analyses, animal protein counts were associated with younger age, higher education and incomes. In mutually adjusted multivariate regression models, animal proteins were associated with education and ethnicity; plant proteins were associated with ethnicity and religion. Protein choices in Malaysia involve socio-cultural as well as economic variables.